History of Arsenal Football Club 1886-1960
David Danskin, Elijah Watkins, John Humble and Richard Pearce, were four friends who worked atRoyal ArsenalinWoolwich, one of the governments main munition factories. In 1886 the four men decided to form a football club. According to Arthur Kennedy, who later became vice-chairman of the club: football was practically unknown in the district, rugger holding the sway In this year, however, a number of enthusiasts for the soccer code, who had migrated from the North and Midlands, conceived the idea of forming an association club, with the result that a meeting was held at the Royal Oak, Woolwich.
The Arsenal historian,Bernard Joy, claims that Danskin was the main person behind this move and sent a subscription list around the workshops to obtain the first necessity, a football. Fifteen subscribed 6d. each and Danskin made up the total to 10s. 6d. out of his own pocket.
The club was initially called Dial Square, after one of the workshops. Danskin was captain of the side and Elijah Watkins agreed to be the secretary.Fred BeardsleyandJoseph Bates, who both used to play forNottingham Forestand who had only recently found work at the Woolwich Arsenal, agreed to join the club.
Michael Wade argues inThe Arsenal Story: An Official Historythat: The very first Arsenal side was, in effect, a works side, formed by people who earned their livings in a vast munitions factory... The first Arsenal football team owed more than its name to this place of work - the vast munitions factory helped to supply a steady flow of players, too. In the latter part of the 19th century, the factory was probably as busy as it ever had been, producing weaponry to bolster the forces of the British Empire and caught up in the escalating arms race that preceded the First World War.
The club had its first game against Eastern Wanderers on 11th December, 1886. Each man provided his own kit and they wore shirts and trousers of different colours. Three had shin guards and nearly all the boots were ordinary pairs, with bars nailed across the soles.
Dial Square won the game 6-0 but the players were not pleased with the quality of the pitch they played on. Elijah Watkins later reported: Talk about a football pitch! This one eclipsed any I ever heard of or saw. I could not venture to say what shape it was, but it was bounded by backyards as to about two-thirds of the area, and the other portion was - I was going to say a ditch, but I think an open sewer would be more appropriate.
At a meeting at the Royal Oak soon afterwards, the men decided to rename the club Royal Arsenal. The club also agreed to play their home games onPlumstead Commonand they changed into their football kit at the nearby Star public house.
The men could not afford to buy a football kit and soFred Beardsleydecided to write to his old club,Nottingham Forest, to ask them if they could help. The club generously agreed to send a complete set of red shirts.
David Danskinalso managed to recruit other workers at the factory who had previous experience of playing football at a higher level inScotland. This includedPeter ConnollyHumphrey BabourJ. M. CharterisJohn McBeanandW. Scott. In 1888Richard Horsington, who had previously played forSwindon Town, also joined the club.The Arsenal team in the 1888-89 season. Front (left to right): Morris,Humphrey Babour,
J. M. Charteris. Seated: Brown,Peter ConnollyDavid Danskin. Standing:Richard
Horsington, Wilson,Fred BeardsleyJoseph BatesJohn McBeanandWilliam Scott.
The team continued to make progress and won the London Charity Cup in 1890 and the London Senior Cup in 1891. That year it was decided to change the club name from Royal Arsenal to Woolwich Arsenal.
A key player during his period wasHumphrey Babour. He had previously played for orThird LanarkandAirdriein theScottish League. During his time at the club he scored 59 goals in 71 games. Another important goalscorer wasJ. M. Charteriswho scored 24 goals in 28 games until he broke his leg in November 1890.
Woolwich Arsenal entered theFA Cupin 1892 but was knocked out by First Division sideDerby County. At the end of the game,John Goodall, the captain and manager, attempted to sign two of Arsenals players,Peter ConnollyandBobby Buist. As Arsenal was a non-leagueamateurclub, there was nothing they could do to stop this happening.
John Humble, who had taken over from Elijah Watkins as Arsenals secretary, was upset by this attempt to poach his best players and at the 1891 Annual General Meeting suggested that the club applied to join theFootball League. The motion was carried by a large majority. However, Humble rejected the idea that Arsenal should become a limited company. Humble declared that the club has been carried on by working men and it is my ambition to see it carried on by them.
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The London Football Association immediately banned Arsenal from playing in their competitions. However, it was not until 1893 that Arsenal was elected to the Second Division of theFootball League. It was decided that Arsenal needed to buy its own ground. The only way to raise enough money for this venture was to form a limited liability company. Eventually 860 people purchased 1,552 1 shares in the club. Most of the shareholders were manual workers who lived locally.
In their first season Arsenal finished in 9th place in the Second Division. The best player wasHarry Storer, thegoalkeeper. In April 1895 he was chosen to play for theFootball Leagueagainst theScottish Leagueand therefore was the first Arsenal player to win representative honours. The following seasonCaesar Jenkynsbecame the clubs firstinternationalplayer when he was selected to play forWalesagainstScotland. Unfortunately both players were soontransferredto larger clubs. Storer was sold toLiverpoolin December 1895 and Jenkyns went toNewton Heathin May 1896.The Arsenal team at the start of the 1895-96 season
On 23rd November 1896,Joseph Powell, Arsenals right-back, went to kick a high ball during a game againstKettering Town. His foot caught on the shoulder of an opponent and Powell fell and broke his arm. One of the men who went to his aid fainted at the sight of the protruding bone. Infection set in and, despite amputation above the elbow, Powell died a few days later when just twenty-six years of age.
Harry Bradshawbecame the manager of Arsenal in 1901. One of his first signings wasJimmy AshcroftfromGravesend United. He played in every game in the 1901-02 season and helped the club to their then highest ever league position (fourth in Division 2 of theFootball League). AsJeff Harrispoints out inArsenal Whos Who, Ashcroft let in only twenty six goals in thirty four games of which he kept seventeen clean sheets which included a run of six games without conceding a goal (which still remains a club record).
Bradshaw also purchasedRoderick McEachraneandWilliam LinwardfromWest Ham United. Other players signed by the club during this period includedTommy BriercliffeTommy ShanksTim ColemanandPercy Sands.
Arsenal gradually built up a local following and over 25,000 people turned up to the Plumstead ground to playSheffield Unitedin the first round of theFA Cup.
In the 1903-04 seasonJimmy Ashcroftconceded only 22 goals in 34 games. This included 20 clean sheets and he played a vital role in helping his club win promotion to the First Division.Tommy Shankswas the clubs leading scorer with 25 league goals. This included hat-tricks againstLeicester CityLincoln CityBurnleyand four in a game againstGrimsby TownTim Colemanalso scored 23 in 28 games.
In April 1904 Arsenal boughtCharlie Satterthwaitefrom their London rivals,West Ham United. They also signedBobby TempletonfromNewcastle Unitedfor 375 in December 1904 to help them cope with First Division football. Arsenal did reasonably well at the top level finishing in 10th place (1904-05). Satterthwaite was top scorer with 11 goals in 30 games.
According toWilliam Pickford, the journalist,Bobby Templetonplayed the best football of his career for Arsenal. In his book,Association Football and the Men Who Made It(1905) he wrote: Templeton is afflicted with a large measure of the eccentricity of genius. He is a man of moods. When the afflatus is upon him he is a winged horse to whom a spur is useless, and whom a curb cannot hold. It is then that the watching multitude is aflame with mingled surprise and admiration - surprise at the wondrous versatility of the man, admiration at the grace and beauty of his movements.
Arsenal finished in 12th place in the 1905-06 season. The club also had a goodFA Cuprun that season beatingWatford(3-0),Sunderland(5-0),Manchester United(3-2) before losing toNewcastle United2-0 in the semi-final withJimmy HowieandColin Veitchgetting the goals.
Arsenal finished in 7th place in the 1906-07 season.Charlie Satterthwaitewas top scorer with 17 goals. Once again they had a good cup run beatingBristol City(2-1),Bristol Rovers(1-0) andBarnsley(2-1) before losing toSheffield Wednesday3-1 in the semi-final.
During this period Arsenal had a very impressive forward line that includedBert FreemanCharlie SatterthwaiteTim ColemanBobby TempletonandBilly Garbutt. The defence was also very good with players such asJimmy AshcroftAndy DucatRoderick McEachraneJimmy SharpandPercy Sandsin the team. However, Arsenal encountered serious financial problems at this time and within 12 months the club sold Freeman, Coleman, Sharp, Ashcroft and Garbutt. Ducat and Templeton followed soon afterwards.
In April 1908Bert Freemanwas allowed to joinEverton. Tony Matthews argues inArsenal Whos Whothat this was one of the great transfer blunders of those early years. In his first season with his new club he scored 38 goals which made him the leagues top scorer. Freeman scored an amazing 61 goals in 86 games for Everton.The Liverpool goalkeeper punches out a shot against Arsenal on 6th October 1906.
Charlie Buchanwas another great player they allowed to go. When he was aged 17 years old Buchan was approached by Arsenal and asked to play for the reserves against Croydon Common. Arsenal won 3-1 and Buchan scored one of the goals. Buchan played in three more games and trained twice a week with the team. However, when he provided a bill of 11 shillings for his travel costs, the club refused to reimburse him. As a result, Buchan refused to play anymore games for the club.
Henry Norris, was the chairman of Arsenal at this time. He had made his fortune based on property development in south-west London.Leslie Knightonwho worked under Norris later commented: I have never met his equal for logic, invective and ruthlessness against all who opposed him. When I disagreed with him at board meetings and had to stand up for what I knew was best for the club, he used to flay me with words until I was reduced to fuming, helpless silence.
In August 1910Alf Commonsigned for Woolwich Arsenal for a fee of 250. He was now 30 years old and past his best. Five years previously,Middlesbroughhad paidSunderland, the record breakingtransfer feeof 1,000 for this outstandinggoalscorer. The previous season Arsenal had finished in 18th place and only just survived being relegated to the Second Division. With Common in the side, Arsenal finished 10th in the next two seasons. During this period he scored 23 goals for the club. However, he was less successful in the first-half of the 1912-13 season and was sold toPreston North Endfor 250.
Leigh Roosejoined Arsenal as a player-coach in December, 1911. For many years Roose had been considered the bestgoalkeeperin Britain. Arsenals young goalkeeper,Harold Crawford, told Athletic News: Leigh Roose stands head and shoulders above all others when it comes to goalkeeping and has done so for many years. If you cant learn from him, you cant learn from anyone. Hes a master. On 23rd March, 1912, he played against his old teamSunderlandatRoker Park. He was in outstanding form and made a series of great saves. At the end of the game he threw his jersey into the crowd and spent over 20 minutes walking around the perimeter of the pitch shaking hands and talking with spectators. A couple of weeks later, he retired from the game. Over a ten year period he had played 285 games in the First Division of theFootball League.
In the 1912-13 season Arsenal finished bottom of the First Division and were relegated.Henry Norrisbelieved that the club had to move to an area which was highly populated and had a good transport network. Eventually he paid 20,000 for a 21 year lease on land owned by theChurch of EnglandatHighbury. One of the great advantages of the site was its proximity toGillespie Roadunderground station.Tottenham HotspurLeyton OrientandChelseaall complained to the League Management Committee about the proposed new stadium as they feared it would reduce the number of people attending their games. However, after a meeting in March 1913, the Football League announced that under the rules and practice of the League we have no right to interfere.
It costHenry Norris80,000 to buildHighbury Stadium. Norris desperately needed Arsenal to get back into the First Division if he was to get a profit out of his investment. However, in the 1913-14 season Arsenal finished in 3rd place and failed to go up because of a worse goal average thanBradford Park Avenue.
The outbreak of theFirst World Warmade it impossible for Arsenal to win promotion over the next four years. The players either joined the armed services or worked in the munition factories.James Maxwell, Woolwich Arsenals outside-right in the 1908-09 season, served with theRoyal Scotsin France until being killed on 27th September 1915.Spencer Bassett, who had played for Arsenal between 1906-1910, was killed on theWestern Frontin 11th April 1917.
On the outbreak of the warLeigh Roose, who played for the club in the 1911-12 season, immediately joined theRoyal Army Medical Corps. His father, Richmond Roose was apacifistwho was strongly opposed to his son becoming involved in the conflict. Roose was sent toFranceand worked at a hospital in Rouen. His job was to treat injured soldiers from theWestern Frontbefore arranging their transport back to Britain.
In April 1915Leigh Roosewas transferred to the Evacuation Hospital atGallipoli. After spending several months treating the wounded, Roose returned toLondon. Roose now joined the 9th Battalion of the Royal Fusiliers as a private. In 1916 he was sent toWestern Frontand had his first experience oftrench warfareclose to the village of Dainville. In August he won the Military Medal for bravery while fighting at theBattle of the Somme. The citation explained how he threw bombs until his arms gave out, and then, joining the covering party, used his rifle with great effect.
While serving on the front-line Roose suffered fromtrench foot, a fungal infection brought on by prolonged exposure to damp, cold and unhygienic conditions.
Leigh Roosewas killed on 7th October 1916 during an attack on the German trenches at Gueudecourt.Gordon Hoare, who before the war had represented England as an amateur footballer, saw Roose running towards the enemy at full speed inNo Mans Land, while firing his gun. Soon afterwards, another soldier saw Roose lying in a bomb crater. His body was never recovered.
Arsenal did play friendly games during the war and on 19th February 1916 a match was arranged withReading. The England international,Bob Benson, worked in a munitions factory inLondonduring the war. On 19th February 1916, Benson went to watchArsenalplayReading. Arsenals right-back,Joe Shaw, could not get away from his job and so Benson, who had not played for a year, agreed to take his place in the team. Clearly unfit, Benson was forced to retire from the field feeling unwell. He tragically died in the dressing-room in the arms of the Arsenal trainer, George Hardy. It was later discovered that he had died of a burst blood vessel. Benson was buried in his Arsenal shirt.
At the end of theFirst World Warit was decided to increase the First Division from 20 to 22 clubs. One solution to the problem was to allow the relegated clubs in the 1914-15 season,ChelseaandTottenham Hotspur, to remain in the First Division. However,Henry Norris, the Arsenal chairman, disputed this idea. Norris, who had just been elected to theHouse of Commonsas aConservativeMP, argued that a great deal of match-fixing had gone on in the 1914-15 season and that league positions should be disregarded. The reason for this was that Arsenal had finished in 5th place in the Second Division in the 1914-15 season and therefore had no grounds for being elected to the First Division.George Hardy (trainer),Bob JohnTom Whittaker, Joe Toner,
Joe Irvine,Henry NorrisandLeslie Knighton.
It was decided to giveChelseaone of the vacant places in the First Division. However, Norris persuaded the league chairman to vote on the other club to join them. Arsenal won the ballot with 18 votes.Spursonly got 8 whereasBarnsley, who finished 3rd in the Second Division in the 1914-15 season, received 5 votes. Many people were of the opinion that Norris had bribed his fellow chairmen in order to win the election.
In June 1919Henry NorrisappointedLeslie Knightonas manager of Arsenal. However, Knighton was just a figurehead and Norris took all the major decisions. For example, he told Knighton he could not spend more than 1,000 on anyone player. Nor was he allowed to sign anyone under 5 foot 8 inches or 11 stone. Knighton was also ordered to abandon the Arsenal scouting system.
Understandably, the club enjoyed no success under Knightons managership. Although he did manage to buy some excellent players such asAlf BakerBob JohnandJimmy Brain. He also signedTom Whittakerwho he converted from a centre-forward to left-half andDan Lewis, a goalkeeper fromClapton Orient. Arsenals best league position was 9th in 1921. In theFA CupArsenal only got beyond the second round once, in 1922, when they lost toPreston North Endin the quarter finals after a replay.Tom Whittakerplaying forArsenalin 1922
Henry NorrissackedLeslie Knightonat the end of the 1924-25 season. Norris advertised the job in the Athletic News on 11th May 1925. It read: Arsenal Football Club is open to receive applications for the position of Team Manager. He must be experienced and possess the highest qualifications for the post, both as to the ability and personal character. gentlemen whose sole ability to build up a good side depends on the payment of heavy and exorbitant transfer fees need not apply.
In the summer of 1925Henry NorrisofferedHerbert Chapman, the highly successful manager ofHuddersfield Town, a salary of 2,000 a year if he agreed to manage Arsenal. When one considers that football stars were only paid 300 a year, this was an attractive proposition. However,Harry Norrishad a reputation for dictatorial behaviour. Also, whereas Huddersfield had won the championship for the successive season, Arsenal had narrowly escaped relegation by finishing in 20th position.
After lengthy negotiationsHenry Norrisagreed thatHerbert Chapmanwould be allowed complete control over the team and that money would be made available to strengthen the squad. Chapmans first concern was to buy a general likeClem Stephenson, who had played such a vital role in the success ofHuddersfield Town. His choice wasCharlie Buchan, who had scored 209 goals in 380 games forSunderland. Bob Kyle, the Sunderland manager, explained to Buchan the complex arrangements of the deal: We pay Sunderland cash down 2,000, and then we hand over 100 to them for every goal you score during your first season with Arsenal.
In October 1925 Arsenal lost 7-0 toNewcastle United. As with his previous clubs,Herbert Chapmanhad a weekly meeting with his players. As a result of this discussion, Chapman changed the way the side played. At that time most teams played in the 2-3-5 formation. This system dominated football until 1925 when theFootball Associationdecided to change the offside rule. The change reduced the number of opposition players that an attacker needed between himself and the goal-line from three to two. This had a profound impact on the way football was played. In the season before the introduction of this new offside law, 4,700 goals were scored in the Football League. During the next season the number went to 6,373.
At the meetingCharlie Buchansuggested toHerbert Chapmanthat the team should exploit this change in the law to create a new playing formation. According toTom Whittaker, Buchan suggested: Why not have a defensive centre-half, or third full-back, to block the gap down the middle? At that time the centre-half played a much more attacking role. Buchan argued that the club should now have a more defence-minded player in that position and that he, rather than the two full-backs, should take responsibility for the offside trap. Chapman agreed with this idea and in fact he had already experimented with this idea atHuddersfield Townbefore the rule change.Tom Wilson, the centre-half, played as a member of a three-man back-line.
It was decided that the full-backs should play just in front of the centre-half whereas one of the inside-forwards should act as a link between attack and defence. The formation was therefore changed from 2-3-5 to 3-3-4. It was also known as the WM formation.
Jack Butlerwas initially selected to play the centre-half role. However, he was soon replaced byHerbert Roberts, who was the reserve wing-half at the time.Cliff Bastinlater pointed out that: As an all-round player he may have had his failings, but he fitted in perfectly with the Arsenal scheme of things. Roberts became known as the stopper or the policeman and rarely moved upfield.Tom Whittakeradded: Robertss genius came from the fact that he was intelligent, and even more important, that he did what he was told.
Jeff Harris argues in his book,Arsenal Whos Who: Off the field Herbie was a gentleman, shy and unassuming, on the field he was known as Policeman Roberts whose main aim was to blot out and stop the opponents centre-forward and these policies made him into one of the most unpopular players the length and breadth of the country. Whether it be at Portsmouth or Sunderland the unruffled red haired Roberts was abused and barracked when ever he played away.
Charlie Buchanwanted to play the roving inside-forward role. However,Herbert Chapmandisagreed and selected veteranAndy Neilto become the link man in the system. At the time Neil was playing in the third-team. Chapman argued that Neil was as slow as a funeral but has ball control and could pass the ball accurately. Later this role went toJimmy RamseyandBilly Blyth.
At the time it was common for teams to attack via the wing. When he was manager ofHuddersfield TownChapman had argued that this senseless policy of running along the lines and centring just in front of the goalmouth, where the odds are nine to one on the defenders. Chapman developed the strategy of inside passing as he considered this to be more deadly, if less spectacular, method. However, it took him time to buy the players who could play this way.
One of Herbert Chapmans first signings wasBill Harper, who cost 4,000 fromHibernian. He replacedDan Lewisas Arsenals first-choicegoalkeeper.
In the 1925-26 season Arsenal finished in second-place to Chapmans old club,Huddersfield Town. Top scorer wasJimmy Brainwho established a new club record with 33 goals. This included four hat-tricks againstEverton(twice),Cardiff CityandBury. Brains partner,Charlie Buchan, scored 21 goals that season which brought the amount paid by Arsenal toSunderlandto 4,100.
Bill Harperplayed in the first 20 games of the 1926-27 season untilTottenham Hotspurbeat them 4-2 at Highbury. Lewis now returned to the first-team. His form was so good that he won the first of his three caps forWalesthat season.
In February 1926Herbert ChapmanpurchasedJoe HulmefromBlackburn Roversfor a fee of 3,500. Hulme was considered the fastest winger in England. As Jeff Harris has pointed out in his book,Arsenal Whos Who: By the end of the first season Hulmes startling pace had become his trade mark, his main trick being to push the ball past the opposing full-back then tear past him as if he never existed.
Henry Norrisrefused to allowHerbert Chapmanto spend too much money to strengthen his team and in the 1926-27 season Arsenal finished in 11th position. However, they did enjoy a good run in theFA Cup. They beatPort Vale(0-1),Liverpool(2-0),Wolverhampton Wanderers(1-0) andSouthampton(2-1) to reach the final atWembleyagainstCardiff City.
With 17 minutes to go,Hughie Fergusonhit a shot at the Arsenal goal that struckTom Parkerand the ball slowly rolled towardsDan Lewis, the goalkeeper. As Lewis later explained: I got down to it and stopped it. I can usually pick up a ball with one hand, but as I was laying over the ball. I had to use both hands to pick it up, and already a Cardiff forward was rushing down on me. The ball was very greasy. When it touched Parker it had evidently acquired a tremendous spin, and for a second it must have been spinning beneath me. At my first touch it shot away over my arm.
Ernie Curtis, Cardiffs left-winger, later commented: I was in line with the edge of the penalty area on the right when Hughie Ferguson hit the shot which Arsenals goalie had crouched down for a little early. The ball spun as it travelled towards him, having taken a slight deflection so he was now slightly out of line with it. Len Davies was following the shot in and I think Dan must have had one eye on him. The result was that he didnt take it cleanly and it squirmed under him and over the line. Len jumped over him and into the net, but never actually touched it.
In the words ofCharlie Buchan: He (Lewis) gathered the ball in his arms. As he rose, his knee hit the ball and sent it out of his grasp. In trying to retrieve it, Lewis only knocked it further towards the goal. The ball, with Len Davies following up, trickled slowly but inexorably over the goal-line with hardly enough strength to reach the net.Jack ButlerandTom ParkerwatchDan Lewisletting the ball slip under his body.
Soon afterwards,Arsenalhad a great chance to draw level. AsCharlie Buchanlater explained: Outside-left Sid Hoar sent across a long, high centre. Tom Farquharson, Cardiff goalkeeper, rushed out to meet the danger. The ball dropped just beside the penalty spot and bounced high above his outstretched fingers. Jimmy Brain and I rushed forward together to head the ball into the empty goal. At the last moment Jimmy left it to me. I unfortunately left it to him. Between us, we missed the golden opportunity of the game. Arsenal had no more chances after that and thereforeCardiff Citywon the game 1-0.
After the gameDan Lewiswas so upset that his mistake had costArsenaltheFA Cupthat he threw away his losers medal. It was retrieved byBob Johnwho suggested that the team would win him a winning medal the following season.Herbert Chapmanbelieved that Lewis was the best goalkeeper at the club and he retained his place in the team the following season.
Tom Whittakerhad been a member of Arsenal playing staff until he suffered a serious injury in 1925. He was told he would be off a long time and so he did a course in anatomy, massage and electrical treatment of injuries. When he returned to Highbury he was unable to train and therefore he helped in the treatment room. Later he became assistant trainer to George Hardy.
On 2nd February, 1927, Arsenal played in a 4th roundFA Cuptie againstPort Vale. According toTom Whittaker: Arsenal were pressing hard, but things were not going just right and old George Hardys eyes spotted something he felt could be corrected to help the attack. During the next lull in the game he hopped to the touchline, and cupping his hands, yelled out that one of the forwards was to play a little farther upfield. Chapman was furious and sent Hardy to the dressing-room.
On the following Monday morningHerbert ChapmansummondedTom Whittakerto his office and told him that he was now the first-team trainer. Chapman added: I am going to make this the greatest club ground in the world, and I am going to make you the greatest trainer in the game.
In October 1927,Herbert ChapmansignedEddie Hapgood, a 19 year old milkman, who was playing for non-leagueKettering Townfor a fee of 750. In his autobiography Hapgood describes his first meeting with Chapman: Well, young man, do you smoke or drink? Rather startled, I said, No, sir. Good, he answered. Would you like to sign for Arsenal
Eddie Hapgoodonly weighed 9 stones 6 pounds at the time and asTom Whittaker, the Arsenal trainer, pointed out: Hapgood used to cause a lot of worry by frequently being knocked out when heading the ball. Whittaker later recalled: All sorts of reasons were propounded as to why this should happen, but eventually I spotted the cause. Eddie was too light, and we had to build him up. At that time he was a vegetarian, but I decided he should eat meat.
Bob Wall, Chapmans administrative assistant, wrote in his autobiography,Arsenal from the Heart: He (Hapgood) played his football in a calm, authoritative way and he would analyse a game in the same quie.